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post in: Beauty, News Date:22 Nov 2017, 15:13 views:1325
Acute exacerbation of copd also known as acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis aECB ) is a sudden worsening. Copd symptoms medicines (shortness of breath, quantity and color of phlegm ) that typically lasts for several days. It may be triggered by an infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants.
Typically, infections cause 75 or more of the exacerbations; bacteria can roughly be found in 25 of cases, viruses in another 25, and both viruses and bacteria in another. Airway inflammation is increased during the exacerbation resulting in increased hyperinflation, reduced expiratory air flow and decreased gas exchange. 1 2, as copd progresses, exacerbations tend to become more frequent, the average being about three episodes per year.
3, contents, signs and symptoms edit, an acute exacerbation of copd is associated with increased frequency and severity of coughing.
4, it is often accompanied by worsened chest congestion and discomfort. Shortness of breath and wheezing are present in many cases. 4, exacerbations may be accompanied by increased amount of cough and sputum productions, and a change in appearance of sputum.
An abrupt worsening in copd symptoms may cause rupture of the airways in the lungs, which in turn may cause a spontaneous pneumothorax. 3, in infection, there is often weakness, fever and chills.
If due to a bacterial infection, the sputum may be slightly streaked with blood and coloured yellow or green. 4, as the lungs tend to be vulnerable organs due to their exposure to harmful particles in the air, several things can cause an acute exacerbation of copd: Respiratory infection, being responsible for approximately half guidelines of copd exacerbations. Approximately half of these are due to viral infections and another half appears to be caused by bacterial infections.
5, common bacterial pathogens of acute exacerbations include. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and, moraxella catarrhalis. 6, less common bacterial pathogens include Chlamydia pneumoniae and mrsa.
6 Pathogens seen more frequently in patients with impaired lung function (FEV 35 of predicted) include Haemophilus parainfluenzae (after repeated use of antibiotics Mycoplasma pneumoniae and gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. 6 Allergens,.g., pollens, wood or cigarette smoke, pollution 4 Toxins, including a variety of different chemicals 4 Air pollution citation needed Failing to follow a drug therapy program,.g. Improper use of an inhaler citation needed In one-third of all copd exacerbation cases, the cause cannot be identified.
Citation needed Diagnosis edit See also: copd Diagnosis The diagnostic criteria for acute exacerbation of copd generally include a production of sputum that is purulent 6 and may be thicker 4 than usual, but without evidence of pneumonia (which involves mainly the alveoli rather than. 4 Also, diagnostic criteria may include an increase in frequency and severity of coughing, 4 as well as increased shortness of breath.
6 A chest X-ray is usually performed on people with fever and, especially, hemoptysis (blood in the sputum to rule out pneumonia and get information on the severity of the exacerbation. Hemoptysis may also indicate other, potentially fatal, medical conditions.