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Non pharmacological behaviour management clinical guidelines for asthma

post in: Lifestyle Date:22 Nov 2017, 15:48 views:3427

Non pharmacological behaviour management clinical guidelines for asthma

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, general health, psychological health, and social and economic wellbeing.

The International Association for the Study of Pain (iasp 2011) defines neuropathic pain as 'pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system'. Central neuropathic pain is defined as 'pain caused by a lesion or disease of the central somatosensory nervous system and peripheral neuropathic pain is defined as 'pain caused by a lesion or disease of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system'. Neuropathic pain is very challenging to manage because of the heterogeneity of its aetiologies, symptoms and underlying mechanisms (Beniczky.

There is often uncertainty regarding the nature and exact location of a lesion or health condition associated with neuropathic pain, particularly in nonspecialist settings. Examples of common conditions that have peripheral neuropathic pain as a symptom are painful diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, radicular pain, post-surgical chronic neuropathic pain, and neuropathic cancer pain (such as, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, neuropathy secondary to tumour antigens, or caused by direct invasion.

Examples of conditions that can cause central neuropathic pain include stroke, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Neuropathic pain can be intermittent or constant, and spontaneous or provoked.

Typical descriptions of the pain include terms such as shooting, stabbing, like an electric shock, burning, tingling, tight, numb, prickling, itching and a sensation of pins and needles. People may also describe symptoms of allodynia (pain caused by a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain hyperalgesia (an increased response to a stimulus that is normally painful anaesthesia dolorosa (pain felt in an anaesthetic numb area or region thermoplasty and sensory gain or loss.

A review of the epidemiology of chronic pain found that there is still no accurate estimate available for the population prevalence of neuropathic pain (Smith. For example, the prevalence of neuropathic pain overall has been estimated to be between 6 and 8, from postal surveys in France (Bouhassira 2008) and the UK (Torrance 2006).

However, these estimates came from studies using different questionnaires.

Other condition-specific studies have also mirrored the heterogeneous nature of neuropathic pain. For example, painful diabetic neuropathy is estimated to affect pregnancy between 16 and 26 of people with diabetes (Jensen. Prevalence estimates for postherpetic neuralgia range from 8 to 19 of people with herpes zoster when defined as pain at 1 month after rash onset, and 8 when defined as pain at 3 months after rash onset (Schmader 2002).

 

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