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post in: Lifestyle, Video Date:24 Sep 2017, 10:36 views:3284
Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health.
Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters lebenserwartung and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions.
Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we allergisches reside.
Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats.
This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course. Keywords, skin Microbiome Microbiota Inflammation Allergy Cytokines Biodiversity Colonisation Antibiotics DOHaD Ecosystems Prevention NCDs Caesarean section Pregnancy.
As the primary interface with the external environment, skin ecosystem is home to complex yet still poorly understood microbial habitats and communities that reflect the health and diversity of the wider ecosystems in which we reside. Resident microbes are increasingly viewed as an integral part of the functional unit of the skin and other body surfaces, interacting with tissues and immune networks to influence the health and function not only of local systems, but wellbeing more generally.
Indeed, the maturation and function of the systemic immune system in the young child is dependent on contact with microbes. This, in turn, has implications for the development and function of virtually all organ systems, including the brain, which are profoundly influenced by the immune system.
Locally, microbial-immune interactions in the skin are vital for optimal barrier function, pathogen defense, and tissue repair with the production of key anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial compounds to maintain healthy tissue homeostasis.
Just as in the gut, the metabolome in the skin reflects the combined functional metabolic activity of the microbes and our host tissues, and is greatly influenced by our environment and behaviour. The very existence of this skin-environment interface raises important questions about how erosion of global biodiversity, and declining contact with the natural environments is affecting skin ecosystems and human health. Examining this question in the context of the epidemic rise of allergy and other inflammatory diseases is informative because allergy is one of the earliest manifestations of inflammation often first observed in the skin as disruptions in barrier function and atopic eczema.