Get ready to energize your life?
Top Offers Only Today
Support your health and step-up your mental focus
post in: Products Date:17 Oct 2017, 04:06 views:3794
Primary head injury can be catastrophic, but the effects of repetitive head injuries must also be considered. Second-impact syndrome (SIS a term coined in 1984, describes the situation in which an individual sustains a second clinic head injury before the symptoms from the first head injury have resolved. The second injury may occur from days to weeks following the first.
Loss of consciousness is not a requirement of this condition, the impact may seem relatively mild, and induced the athlete may appear only dazed initially. However, this second impact causes cerebral edema and herniation, leading to collapse and death within minutes.
Only 17 cases of confirmed SIS have been alaska reported in the medical literature.
Thus, the true risk and pathophysiology of SIS has not been clearly established.
Importantly, even if the effects of the initial brain injury have already resolved (6-18 mo post injury the effect of multiple concussions over time remains significant and can result in long-term neurologic and functional deficits. These multiple brain insults can still be termed repetitive head injury syndrome, but they do not fit the classification of SIS. True SIS would most likely have a devastating outcome.
A study of American high school and college football players demonstrated 94 catastrophic head injuries (significant intracranial bleeding or edema) over a 13-year period.1 Of these, only 2 occurred at the college level.
Seventy-one percent of high school players suffering such injuries had a previous concussion in the same season, with 39 playing with residual symptoms. On the other hand, results from a study of concussion by the National Football League demonstrated no cases of SIS or catastrophic head injury in players returning to play in the same game after resolution of symptoms.2. The outcome of multiple minor head injuries over a prolonged period has not been well studied and is not well understood.
The preponderance of data assessing the impact of repetitive head injuries on short- and long-term neurologic (cognitive) performance has been focused on the sports of boxing and American football.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,.