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post in: Products, Beauty, News Date:22 Nov 2017, 17:52 views:4879
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the large airways in which many different cellular elements play a role.
A characteristic feature of asthma is obstruction of the airways (predominantly in the third to seventh generation of the bronchi) that is reversible with time or in response to treatment. Even when patients exacerbation have a normal airflow (which for mild asthmatics is much of the time their lungs are hyper-reactive to a variety of stimuli that occur naturally (e.g., cold air, exercise, chemical fumes) or are used to test pulmonary function (e.g., methacholine, histamine, cold. Bronchial hyper-reactivity correlates with inflammation of the bronchi, which includes damage to the epithelium and eosinophil infiltration.
Other characteristics aasp of asthma include airway mucosal edema, mucus hypersecretion, and remodeling of the airways.
Symptomatically, patients experience chest tightness, wheezing, shortness of breath, or coughing. Mild forms of the disease occur in up to 10 of the population, but asthma requiring regular treatment affects approximately 2 of the population.
Compared with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) is defined by the Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease as A disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases.
Copd includes chronic obstructive bronchiolitis with fibrosis and obstruction of small airways, emphysema with enlargement of airspaces and destruction of lung parenchyma, loss of lung elasticity, and closure of small airways.
Most patients with copd experience a triad of symptoms, including: Chronic obstruction, emphysema, mucus plugging, smoking is by far the primary cause practice of copd; other risk factors include occupational dust and chemical exposures, environmental exposure (second-hand smoke and genetic predisposition (primarily 1 antitrypsin deficiency).
Currently, copd is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States.