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Index of articles from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Niaid Overview, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (niaid) had its origins in the earliest days of the Public Health Service.
In 1948, the Rocky Mountain Laboratory and the Biologics Control Laboratory, both dating to 1902, joined the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Division of Tropical Diseases of the National Institutes of Health to form the National Microbiological Institute.
Six years later, Congress gave the Institute its present name to reflect the inclusion of allergy and immunology research. Today, niaid provides the major support for scientists conducting research aimed at developing better ways to diagnose, treat and prevent the many infectious, immunologic and allergic diseases that afflict people worldwide. Niaid is composed of four extramural divisions: the Division of aids, the Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and the Division of Extramural Activities.
In addition, niaid scientists conduct intramural research in laboratories located in Bethesda, Rockville and Frederick, Maryland, and in Hamilton, Montana. Following is a brief description of the major areas of investigation. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (aids).
Niaid is responsible for conducting and supporting basic research on the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which causes aids; developing new drug therapies; conducting clinical trials of promising experimental drugs for HIV infection and related opportunistic infections and cancers; carrying out epidemiologic studies. Asthma and Allergic Diseases. Research on asthma and allergies has revealed much about their underlying mechanisms and contributed to the development of new ways to help affected individuals.
Niaid has established a network of asthma, allergic, and immunologic diseases research centers to transfer results from fundamental studies in immunology and clinical studies of allergy to clinical practice.
The Institute also supports the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study to define factors that influence the disease's severity and to design and evaluate programs to reduce asthma episodes and deaths allergy among African-American and Hispanic children. New diseases are arising worldwide and old diseases are re-emerging as infectious agents evolve or spread and as changes occur in ecology, socioeconomic conditions, and population patterns.
Niaid conducts and supports research on Lyme disease, hantavirus, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and other emerging diseases to develop new or improved diagnostics, treatment, and vaccines. Worldwide, diarrheal diseases such as cholera and rotavirus are a major cause of illness and death in infants and children. In contrast, viral hepatitis in its various forms, can cause severe disease in older children and adults, although it produces few symptoms among younger age groups.
Niaid supports basic research on how enteric agents cause illness as well as studies aimed at developing and testing vaccines to prevent enteric infections. Niaid supports studies aimed at improving immunosuppressive therapies, further developing reagents needed symptoms for precise tissue matching, defining the genetic regulation of the immune response and understanding the molecular mechanisms that control immune system genes.